Choose from TOTP, HOTP, OCRA, and EVV algorithms for enhanced security and efficient time tracking of medical personnel
PKI is a set of technologies, standards, and practices used to manage, store, distribute, and verify digital certificates and public keys for the purpose of ensuring security and authentication in networks or computer systems.
PKI plays a crucial role in securing networks, electronic communications, e-commerce, and other domains where authentication and data protection are required. It is often used to establish Virtual Private Networks (VPNs), secure email communications, digitally sign electronic documents, and many other applications that demand robust cryptography and authentication.
SSO is an authentication and authorization method that allows users to log in to multiple different applications or services using the same set of credentials (typically a username and password) just once. Instead of having to enter credentials for each separate system or application, SSO enables users to log in once and gain access to all connected resources without the need for additional authentication.
SSO systems can be implemented using various protocols, including Security Assertion Markup Language (SAML), OAuth, and OpenID Connect. These protocols allow SSO systems to establish trust relationships between services and a central authentication source, facilitating the seamless and secure sharing of authentication credentials across multiple applications.
SAML is an XML-based framework for exchanging authentication and authorization data between parties, particularly in the context of web-based applications and services. SAML enables Single Sign-On (SSO), a process that allows a user to access multiple applications with a single set of login credentials.
SAML was first introduced in the early 2000s and has since become a fundamental technology for identity and access management in various industries. It is widely used in enterprise environments, cloud services, and federated identity management systems. Organizations use SAML to enable secure and convenient access to applications and services, both within their own networks and across organizational boundaries. SAML plays a crucial role in enhancing security and simplifying user authentication and authorization processes in the digital world.
OAuth is an open standard and protocol for enabling secure access to resources on the internet. It allows users to grant third-party applications limited access to their data without revealing their login credentials. OAuth is widely used for enabling Single Sign-On (SSO), sharing resources between applications, and providing secure authorization mechanisms.
OAuth was first introduced in 2006 and has since become a fundamental standard for secure authorization in web and mobile applications. It is used by numerous online services and social media platforms to enable third-party developers to build applications that access user data while maintaining user privacy and security. OAuth simplifies the process of authentication and authorization, making it more user-friendly and secure in the digital age.
Push notifications are short messages or alerts sent from centralized servers to mobile devices or web browsers. They are a powerful communication tool used to deliver real-time updates, information, and engagement prompts to users, even when the associated mobile app or website is not actively in use. Push notifications enhance user engagement, provide timely information, and can be used for various purposes, from news updates to marketing promotions.
Push notifications have become an essential communication channel for apps and websites, offering a direct way to interact with users and keep them informed and engaged.
Push notifications emerged in the early 2000s and became widely adopted alongside the growth of mobile applications and web services. They were developed to facilitate timely and convenient communication with users, allowing the delivery of short messages or alerts even when the user is inactive within the app or website.
Ensuring the security of Push notifications is a critically important aspect of their development and usage. It guarantees that users can receive notifications without the risk of confidential information leakage or security vulnerabilities.
"Zero Trust" is an approach to cybersecurity that is based on the idea that organizations should not inherently trust anything or anyone inside or outside their network. In the context of authentication, Zero Trust implies that even if a device or user is within the corporate network, they still need to undergo authentication and identity verification before gaining access to resources and data.
Information security based on Zero Trust relies on mistrust and active control over access, rather than assuming trust within the network, and this extends to authentication.
PAM is a framework used in Unix-like operating systems to manage authentication-related tasks. PAM enables system administrators to configure and customize authentication methods for various services and applications without modifying the programs themselves.
PAM is a powerful tool for managing authentication and access control in Unix-like systems, enhancing security and adaptability.
Adaptive authentication, also known as context-based or risk-based authentication, is a security approach that adjusts the level of authentication required for a user or device based on the context and perceived risk associated with a specific login or transaction. Unlike traditional static authentication methods, which typically require the same level of authentication for all users and scenarios, adaptive authentication assesses various factors and dynamically determines the appropriate level of security needed.
Adaptive authentication is particularly valuable in today's complex and dynamic cybersecurity landscape. It helps organizations enhance security while maintaining a user-friendly experience, as it only imposes additional authentication steps when necessary based on risk. This approach is especially beneficial for protecting sensitive systems and data from unauthorized access and fraudulent activities.
OTP is a security mechanism that generates a unique password for each authentication attempt. Unlike traditional static passwords, OTPs are valid for only a single use or a short period of time, making them significantly more secure.
OTP technologies can generate OTPs from various sources, including:
OTP technologies often adhere to the OATH (Initiative for Open Authentication) standard, which defines common algorithms and practices for OTP generation and verification. This standardization promotes interoperability among OTP solutions.
The following RFCs are relevant to OTPs:
OTP technologies are widely used in various applications, including online banking, secure access to computer systems, and multi-factor authentication (MFA) for enhanced security.
OpenID is an authentication protocol and identity management system designed to facilitate and secure the process of logging into various web services, applications, and resources on the internet. OpenID allows users to use a single identity account (OpenID) to access different online services, instead of creating and remembering separate accounts and passwords for each of them.
After successful authentication, the OpenID provider returns the confirmation to the service that initiated the request.
The service, having received the confirmation, grants access to the user.
OpenID offers several advantages, such as reducing the need to remember multiple passwords, simplifying the login process for various web services, and enhancing security since user accounts and passwords are stored only with the OpenID provider. However, OpenID has its vulnerabilities and requires caution in its use. Currently, OpenID has given way to more modern and secure authentication protocols, such as OAuth and OpenID Connect, which provide broader functionality and enhanced security measures.
Strong authentication, also known as two-factor authentication (2FA) or multi-factor authentication (MFA), is a security process that requires users to provide two or more separate and distinct forms of identification to verify their identity. It is designed to enhance the security of digital systems, accounts, and data by adding an additional layer of protection beyond traditional username and password authentication.
The primary goal of strong authentication is to mitigate the risks associated with stolen or compromised passwords, which are often the weakest link in many security systems. With strong authentication, even if a malicious actor obtains a user's password, they would still need access to the second authentication factor to gain entry. This significantly increases the difficulty of unauthorized access.
To perform strong authentication, a user typically combines factors from at least two of these categories. For example:
The combination of these factors significantly enhances the security of the authentication process because it requires an attacker to compromise multiple elements, which is much more challenging than stealing or guessing a single password.
Strong authentication is widely used in various contexts, including online banking, email services, cloud applications, and secure access to corporate networks. It plays a crucial role in protecting sensitive information and preventing unauthorized access to digital accounts and resources.
FIDO is an open standard and set of specifications designed to enhance online security by providing a secure and convenient way for users to authenticate themselves to various online services and applications. FIDO Alliance, a consortium of companies and organizations, developed these standards. The primary goal of FIDO is to reduce reliance on passwords and provide stronger authentication methods.
FIDO authentication provides several advantages, including stronger security, protection against phishing attacks (since it is based on public key cryptography), and a more user-friendly experience by eliminating the need for passwords or one-time codes. It has gained widespread adoption and is supported by major technology companies and online service providers. FIDO2, a specific subset of FIDO protocols, is commonly used to enable passwordless authentication across various platforms and devices.
OCRA is one of the authentication standards developed as part of the OATH (Initiative for Open Authentication) initiative. OCRA is closely related to two other authentication standards: TOTP (Time-Based One-Time Password) and HOTP (HMAC-Based One-Time Password). All three standards provide a secure means of generating and verifying one-time passwords (OTPs) for user authentication, but they use different methods for OTP generation and verification of authenticity.
OCRA was described in RFC 6287, which was published in July 2011. RFC (Request for Comments) is a series of documents developed by the community of engineers and specialists in computer networks and protocols. These documents define standards, protocols, and methods for various aspects of network communication and interaction, including security and authentication. RFC 6287 describes OCRA as one of the technologies for authentication and security designed to protect access to systems and resources.
OCRA is used to implement one-time passwords (OTP) and other challenge-response authentication methods. This algorithm utilizes a secret key and additional parameters such as a counter or a timestamp to generate OTPs, which are then transmitted for authentication.
OCRA can be configured in various ways, including the use of different types of hashing algorithms and different parameters such as counters or timestamps. It provides a reliable authentication method that contributes to protecting against unauthorized access to accounts and resources.
OCRA and other one-time password algorithms are widely used in two-factor authentication (2FA) and multi-factor authentication (MFA) systems, as well as in banking systems and other domains where a high level of security is required.
Below is the full text of RFC 6287, which describes OCRA: RFC 6287 - OCRA: OATH Challenge-Response Algorithm
U2F is an open authentication standard developed collaboratively by Google and Yubico, but later made open and available to everyone. It is a two-factor authentication (2FA) method that utilizes hardware devices, often referred to as hardware security keys, to provide secure and convenient access to online services and applications.
U2F is widely used in many online services and applications, providing a higher level of security compared to traditional passwords.
Challenge-response is a method of authentication or data exchange in which one party (typically a server or system) presents a challenge, and the other party (usually a client) provides a response that proves its authenticity. This method is used to verify the legitimacy of a device or user attempting to access a system or perform a specific action.
Challenge-Response methods provide an additional level of security and prevent "man-in-the-middle" (MITM) attacks since the challenge changes for each authentication, and the response cannot be reused.
OATH is an initiative dedicated to developing and promoting open standards and protocols for authentication and security. OATH was created with the aim of establishing open and universally accessible authentication methods to enhance the security and convenience of authentication in various systems and services.
These OATH standards and protocols are widely used in various domains, including the banking industry, network security, two-factor authentication (2FA), multi-factor authentication (MFA), and online services to enhance access security.
Biometric authentication is a method of authentication that uses an individual's unique biological and physical characteristics to verify their identity. Instead of traditional passwords or PINs, biometric authentication relies on measurements and analysis of physical parameters or behavioral traits, such as fingerprint scans, facial recognition, iris scans, voice biometrics, and even the dynamics of typing.
Biometric authentication is widely used in various fields, including smartphones, banking, passport systems, physical security, and others, to provide convenience and security in authentication.
In summary, biometric authentication offers both advantages and challenges, and its successful implementation requires addressing these challenges while ensuring user convenience and data security.
Passwordless is an approach to user authentication where users are not required to enter a password to access a system or service. Instead, alternative authentication methods that are typically considered more secure and convenient are used.
Implementing passwordless authentication can enhance security, as passwords can be vulnerable to hacking or theft. Additionally, it can improve the user experience by eliminating the need to remember complex passwords. However, it is important to ensure the reliability and security of the chosen alternative authentication methods when implementing passwordless authentication.
Authentication factors are various means of verifying a user's identity when gaining access to a system, service, or application. The primary categories of authentication factors include:
Many modern authentication systems employ multi-factor authentication (MFA) or two-factor authentication (2FA), combining two or more of the above-mentioned factors to provide a higher level of security. For example, this may involve a combination of a password (something you know) and a one-time code sent to a mobile device (something you have), or a password and fingerprint scan (something you know and something you are).
Using multiple authentication factors makes it more difficult for malicious actors to impersonate or compromise a user's credentials, enhancing the security of access to a system or data.
MFA is a method of ensuring security and authentication in which users must provide multiple different authentication factors to confirm their identity and gain access to a system, service, or application. These factors typically fall into one of the following categories:
An example of MFA could involve the following scenario: after entering a password (something you know), the user receives an SMS with a one-time code on their mobile phone (something you have). To complete authentication, the user must input this one-time code (something you know and something you have).
MFA enhances security because even if one of the authentication factors becomes known or compromised, an attacker would still have difficulty gaining access, as they would need to overcome multiple authentication barriers.
2FA is a security and authentication method that requires users to provide two different authentication factors to confirm their identity and gain access to a system, service, or application.
These two factors typically fall into different authentication categories to ensure they are independent of each other. Typically, one of the factors is "something you know" (e.g., a password), and the second factor is "something you have" (e.g., a one-time code sent to a mobile device).
An example of 2FA could involve the following scenario: after entering a password (something you know), a one-time code is sent to the user's registered mobile device (something you have). The user must enter this code to complete the authentication process.
2FA enhances access security because even if an attacker discovers or steals a password, it remains challenging for them to gain access without physical access to the second authentication factor (which the user possesses). This method increases the security of accessing a system or application and protects user credentials from unauthorized access.
TOTP is a method of two-factor authentication that uses one-time passwords generated based on the current time and a secret key. This method is commonly used to enhance security for accessing online services and applications.
The core idea behind TOTP is that both users and the server share the same secret key. Based on this secret key and the current time (typically represented as a time counter or a UNIX timestamp), a one-time password is generated. This password is valid only for a short time window (e.g., 30 seconds) before it becomes invalid.
Using an authenticator app (such as Google Authenticator or Protectimus Smart) or a hardware authenticator (like YubiKey), users obtain the current TOTP-based one-time password, which they enter along with their regular password to complete the authentication process.
TOTP was first described in RFC 6238, published in May 2011. This standard has become a popular means of two-factor authentication and is used in many online services and applications to enhance the security of user account access.
HOTP is a method for generating one-time passwords for user authentication. HOTP is based on the HMAC (Hash-based Message Authentication Code) algorithm and uses a secret key and a counter to generate a one-time password that is valid only at a specific moment in time.
HOTP was defined in RFC 4226 and was first published in December 2005.
HOTP is commonly used in authentication systems that utilize authenticators like hardware tokens or authenticator apps.
Smart card authentication is a method of authentication in which a user verifies their identity by presenting a smart card (sometimes also referred to as an intelligent card, microprocessor card, or chip card). Smart cards are physical devices that contain an embedded microprocessor and memory for storing information and performing cryptographic operations.
However, implementing smart cards requires specialized card reader devices and infrastructure for card management, which may entail additional costs and efforts compared to other authentication methods, such as passwords or biometric authentication.
OpenID Connect is an open standard for authentication and authorization built on top of the OAuth 2.0 protocol. OIDC provides mechanisms for user authentication, authorization, and the exchange of user information between different online services and applications.
OIDC offers a standardized way for web applications and services to interact with IdPs for user authentication and information retrieval. It is widely used in modern network identity and authentication scenarios, such as social login, Single Sign-On (SSO), identity between microservices, and more.
A PIN is a numerical or alphanumeric code used for user authentication or access to a specific device, account, or service. PIN codes are typically used to provide an additional layer of security, especially on mobile devices, bank cards, computers, and other systems.
PIN codes provide an additional level of security, but it's important to choose complex and unique codes and not share them with others to avoid potential security threats.